Jones moved from Memphis to Chicago and devoted the rest of her long life to organizing workers to achieve higher pay and shorter hours. Some trains were set on fire. Should the government take a leading role in helping people suffering from unemployment, poverty, or homelessness? Calhoun's protest raised the idea of secession (a state withdrawing from the United States) for the first time. It is the story of an ongoing struggle between workers and business owners for a share of the wealth created as a result of industrialization. Sometimes, as in the case of cigar makers in New York City, tiny apartments were also the workplace, where the father and mother devoted one room to rolling tobacco leaves into cigars, used the other room for living and sleeping, and had a small kitchen off to the side. The founder of Hull House was Jane Addams (1860–1935), who came from a well-to-do family in Cedarville, Iowa. Mass production allowed goods to be sold cheaply. The rally started at 4:30 in the afternoon, and at around 10:00 that night police moved in to demand that the rally end. Technology has changed the world in many ways, but perhaps no period introduced more changes than the Second Industrial Revolution. Many workers went for weeks every year without work, or pay, because his or her employer had shut down during a slow period. The social problems arising from industrialization began to be seen in the nineteenth century. Hull House pioneered many social services provided today by government agencies as well as by churches and volunteers. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. Two days later, fighting broke out at the factory and police who were on the scene monitoring the strike opened fire, killing four people. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. These laws were passed as part of the program called the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945), who came to power during a period of high unemployment called the Great Depression. (Common law is the body of old English customs that were legally enforceable, even without a specific law.) In 1825 Representative Henry Clay (1777–1852) of Kentucky, who strongly believed that the government should help encourage economic growth, helped pass a law that set tariffs on imported iron, wool, cotton, and hemp (hemp is a tough fiber used to make rope and certain types of fabric) even higher (at 35 percent). Companies, foreseeing much reduced demand, laid off workers. Investors, including many ordinary people, owed banks for the money they had borrowed to buy the stocks. Addams, Jane. But the most widespread, and eventually the most effective, approach to fight the leaders of industrialization was to form a labor union. The chief concerns of the British government in the 1700s were protecting the country from foreign attack and protecting private property from possible attempts by the poor to seize wealth via a revolution, or even via a democratic vote. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Social and Political Impact of the Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution. In the campaign to defeat socialism in the United States, some opponents linked it to the "Old World" of Europe, where most socialist theorists had originated, thereby suggesting that socialism was unpatriotic. THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR Second industrial revolution, which began somewhere in the 19 th century, is also known as the technological revolution.It is said to have begun in the 1840s and spread until the First World War. After Roosevelt's death in 1945, Republicans continued to resist some New Deal programs, or to modify them. They are hired by company owners in an effort to defeat strikers. Shortly afterwards, General Douglas MacArthur drove the "bonus marchers" out of the capital, where they were camped on the site of a former recruiting station. But any hint of an end to this growth often causes investors to try to sell their shares in companies (for fear the company might eventually go out of business). The Civilian Conservation Corps provided jobs in federal parks to unemployed urban workers. The history of unions in coal mines was often marked by violence, both in eastern mines (largely in Pennsylvania) and in the West, especially in Colorado. The counterpart of Samuel Gompers's notion of organizing skilled workers around their particular skills (cigar makers, bricklayers, carpenters, and so forth) was the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which aimed to organize all workers based on the industry they worked for (such as miners, railroad workers, steelworkers) regardless of their individual skills. The union was open to anyone (with the exception of bankers, lawyers, professional gamblers, liquor dealers—or stockholders). In 1940 Roosevelt volunteered to produce military supplies and lend them to Britain in its struggle against Germany. Into this atmosphere marched Mary Harris Jones (1830–1930), one of the most colorful characters in the history of labor unions. When they went out on strike, miners were often ready to use their fists to stop strikebreakers, workers hired by mine owners to replace striking employees. From 1865 to 1900 federal tariffs averaged 47 percent of the price of imports. As a cigar maker, Gompers often took the role of a "reader"; other cigar makers would set aside some of their own production for him in exchange for having Gompers read books out loud to them, in order to relieve the boredom of their work. Taxes were cut to make more money available to be spent (by both businesses and consumers), or to encourage businesses to invest in new factories as a means of stimulating economic growth. Workers also tried to improve their lives through politics. The act limited the ability of unions to require workers to join the union and pay dues, and the law banned secondary strikes (strikes against companies that were customers or suppliers of the firm that was the initial target of a strike). One of the major effects of the second industrial revolution was caused by the societal struggles to obtain class. The life of a typical worker at the turn of the twentieth century was difficult. Second Industrial Revolution (1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. "Social and Political Impact of the Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution In his company, Rockefeller assigned certain geographical areas to each company; other companies owned by Rockefeller were not allowed to compete in those areas. And just as the business owners tried to buy the least expensive raw materials, so did they try to save money on the cost of hiring workers. The first factories were built in the 18th century, with British textile mills that spread to the United States, a time known as the First Industrial Revolution. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/social-and-political-impact-second-phase-industrial-revolution, The 1910s Business and the Economy: Topics in the News. Often, the affected workers were immigrants who had flooded into big cities; thus it was often easier to blame poverty and unemployment on immigration rather than on shortcomings of industrialization. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Some observers feared that workers would start a revolution, similar to the 1917 communist revolution that had taken place in Russia just twelve years earlier. While business owners were covered by laws protecting private property, workers had not previously been given parallel protection in pursuing their interests in the form of unions. Official attitudes began to shift slightly by 1842, when the Massachusetts state supreme court ruled that another group of shoemakers had not violated the law by refusing to work for any company that paid less than the shoemakers' agreed-upon minimum wage. ." In the 1932 presidential election, the Democratic candidate, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882–1945), won 88.9 percent of the vote. The unprecedented size and influence of the companies that had monopolies on markets raised concerns that such companies (called trusts in that era) could seriously harm consumers by raising prices higher and higher since they had no competition (see Chapter 6). Multiple families crammed into two- and three-room apartments, often without natural light or ventilation. He never won more than a small percentage of the popular vote. The company, owned by George Pullman (1831–1897), manufactured and operated luxurious railroad passenger cars. 1. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Efforts to organize workers to bargain for higher wages, shorter hours, and better conditions usually focused on a single company, or industry, or region. Pullman refused, but he agreed to look into other complaints about the behavior of foremen in his shops. Because the Northern states were already growing in population faster than the Southern states, which entitled them to send more members to the House of Representatives, Calhoun foresaw a day when some states could, in effect, gang up on the others. Electricity, like petroleum, was a key enabling technology of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution. In 1932, Congress considered a bill to immediately provide a bonus payment to World War I veterans. Rents for housing in his company town, however, did not come down; money was still taken from now-reduced paychecks. Even after selling their stocks, investors did not have enough to repay the loans. Encyclopedia.com. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Of particular interest to labor unions was the National Labor Relations Act, passed in 1935. Business owners viewed both as threats to their property and prosperity.) When the transplanted Englishman Samuel Slater (1768–1835) established a textile mill in Rhode Island in 1797, he did more than open a fabric-making business: he set the stage for a long argument over the proper role of government in economic affairs. Unions are organizations of workers who have banded together to bargain with an employer for higher wages, shorter hours, and other improvements in their working conditions. Because coal was vital both to industrial operations (notably railroads and steel mills) and for domestic purposes (for heating homes), government intervention in coal workers' strikes was not unusual. By raising the price for manufactured goods particularly, tariffs aided new manufacturing companies. Even Henry Ford, who voluntarily doubled his workers' pay in 1914, was the target of bitter clashes a few years later between his company and unions representing his workers. The Industrial Revolution was one of the most important events in human history and dramatically transformed life for people throughout the world. And factory workers—including women—then had the money to buy these products. The CIO and its member unions represented labor's most serious challenge to the power of industrialists since the first fabric factory was set up in Rhode Island. Artisans into Workers: Labor in Nineteenth-Century America. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Eventually, starting in the 1930s, some of these separate companies merged, but the enormous combination created by John D. Rockefeller was never reassembled. Great swaths of land that had once whispered grass now screamed corn and wheat.". But the revolutionary aspect of the constant stream of new inventions that fundamentally changed people's lives was over in Western Europe, where it was born, and in the United States, where it thrived. The problem was that English factories could produce cloth and ship it to the United States less expensively than native factories could make it. In New York Gompers and his family lived in another slum where families were jammed into two- or three-room apartments. Other businesses tried to achieve monopolies by buying up the competition or driving smaller competitors out of business. The CIO was expelled from the AFL in 1937, and five years later, in 1942, the United Mine Workers Union withdrew from the CIO. BIBLIOGRAPHY Nations started to identify national pride and identities. Driven partly by fear of what might happen in the future, consumers order fewer goods, manufacturers produce less and hire fewer workers. In 1941 the United States entered the war, after the Japanese navy attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Sometimes, agriculture and industry have been in conflict, and industry did not always carry the day. Mother Jones: The Most Dangerous Woman in America. In 1877 ten union activists were hanged in Pennsylvania; in 1892 eighteen miners and private guards died during the Homestead Strike near Homestead, Pennsylvania. Jane Addams herself made the connection between the specific services provided by Hull House and the larger issue of human welfare in the new factory system created by the Industrial Revolution. Mother Jones, May 2001, p. 58. Factory Products Remade Life in America. 4- Telephone. Black Diamond Express train on the Lehigh Valley Railroad in Pennsylvania, circa 1898. They even disagree on precisely when recessions begin and end. Economic growth means that factories are producing more and more. The source of the loans was depositors' money, which was now gone. In the period from 1870 to 1890, there was an economy and productivity boom in the industrialized countries. Urbanization & Other Effects of the Industrial Revolution: Social & Economic Impacts Migration from Rural to Urban Settings in Europe and the U.S.: History and Effects Such taxes, which had the effect of raising the price of imported materials (such as cotton fabric), are called tariffs, and they continue to be applied in the twenty-first century. Life, Fall 1990, p. 62. Early 20th-century films like Fritz Lang’s sci-fi dystopia “Metropolis” or Charlie Chaplin’s assembly line comedy “Modern Times” capture this fear of the factory worker as a human robot. "Losing a Sense of Belonging." Web site: http://www.teamster.org He ordered that his grave be lined in concrete, fearing that resentful union members might try to vandalize it. Unemployment was a thing of the past; the gears of industry were humming along. In 1893 an economic downturn (the term "recession" was used a century later to describe this phenomenon) had reduced the demand for Pullman's cars. “The advantage is if you are out in the field and something goes wrong, someone can send you that part and fix it without having to redo the entire gun.”. In 1914 company guards and Colorado militiamen fired into a union tent at Ludlow, Colorado, killing nineteen, including twelve children. Anarchists believed in the elimination of government institutions in favor of voluntary associations; socialists believed that government, controlled democratically, should own and operate major businesses. It also was a setback for the campaign for the eight-hour workday. Calculated in 2003 dollars, in 1914 a Ford worker earned around $28,000 a year while a typical worker earned aroun… Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/social-and-political-impact-second-phase-industrial-revolution. From the very beginning—and continuing into the present day—those who invented the new machinery or invested money to build new factories saw their workers as a cost of doing business. The sight of so many unemployed caused a further contraction of sales, which led to more layoffs. The British Agricultural Revolution refers to the unprecedented rise … Government programs such as pensions (social security) and unemployment insurance were started during the presidency of Democrat President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (in office from 1933 to 1945); they have continued, and even expanded, in the decades since, during both Democratic and Republican administrations. 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