1.0, the reactor system is said to “breed” and the term Breeding Ratio or BR becomes synonymous with CR. Limited data on both the radium isotopes are given in Table 5.3. 232Th is not capable of undergoing fission reaction after absorbing thermal neutron, on the other hand 232Th can be fissioned by fast neutron with energy higher than >1MeV. 210Po (half-life 138.4 days) is produced by the decay of 210Pb via 210Bi with a short half-life of 5.0 days. Thorium is used as coloring agent in ceramic glazes. 232 Th decays via alpha decay into 228 Ra . From Wiki "Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle." Thorium 232, which alone makes up nearly all natural thorium, is the most common isotope of thorium in the nature.This isotope has the longest half-life (1.4 x 10 10 years) of all isotopes with more than 83 protons. The inelastic scattering of neutrons of up to 1.6 Mev energy by natural thorium and uranium was studied using the m mu sec time of flight technique. To understand the nuclear aspects of the thorium cycle, we need to compare the relevant physical characteristics of the fertile isotopes 232Th and 238U and of the fissile isotopes 233U, 235U, and 239Pu. An important aspect of the utilization of thorium, and probably one reason for its slow progress, is the fact that unlike in natural uranium, there is no fissile isotope present. This can be compared with the total gamma activity of the human body (about 3700 Bq), mainly due to 40K natural abundance in blood and in marrow (Calés and Stefani 1995, Piconi and Maccauro 1999). James R. Metcalf, Rebecca M. Flowers, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2020. Higher ranges of 0.75–202 Bq kg−1 DM were reported in Spanish mushrooms (Guillén et al., 2009) and mushrooms from Finnish boreal forests, namely, 1.4–16.2 Bq kg−1 DM (Vaaramaa, Solatie, & Aro, 2009). Consequently, from its origins, life on our planet was always exposed to a certain level of natural radiation, coming from the decay of radioactive nuclei or produced by cosmic rays. The (U-Th)/He technique differs from most other radiometric chronometers in that one daughter nuclide can be produced by multiple distinct parent nuclides. Neutrons stabilize the nucleus, because they attract each other and protons , which helps offset the electrical repulsion between protons. Although YTZP has specific activity higher than alumina, titanium, or chromium–cobalt alloys, the use of YTZP ball-heads does not entail doses higher than 1 mS yr−1 (the dose to the general public due to natural background), conforming to International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are there in an atom of (a) magnesium- 24,^{24} \mathrm{Mg} ; (b) tin- 119,^{119} \mathrm{Sn} and (c) thorium-232, ^{… Namely, the specific gamma activity of YTZP precursors may be as low as 40 Bqkg−1. The most important parameter for a fissile isotope is the “number of fission neutrons produced per neutron absorbed in the nuclide,” the so-called η (eta) value. Corrado Piconi, ... Tomaž Kosmač, in Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry, 2014. They generate what is called telluric radiation: gamma radiation emitted by these radioisotopes found in rocks and in the building materials. Many aspects of uranium oxide fuel are reviewed in Belle and Lustman (1958). We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. All of thoriums several isotopes are radioactive. Atoms—and the protons, neutrons, and electrons that compose them—are extremely small. How many neutorns does thorium have? We can represent this radioactive decay in a special kind of equation: No correlation between 40K and 137Cs was observed despite cesium being a chemical analog of potassium (Baeza et al., 2004). The nucleus consists of 90 protons (red) and 142 neutrons (blue). Table 1 summarizes the conventional and advanced fuels and cladding materials for research and power reactors. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489123851, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526018301, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526011657, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526011189, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128030721000055, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X006817, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489121682, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128175651000054, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123946195000110, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526011220, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, U-232 is a product in the Th-232 to U-233 conversion reactions and is a problem due to the build-up of highly gamma active daughter products as explained in, Oxide Ceramics for Biomedical Applications, Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxication, Kumar, Sharma, Ali, Pandey, and Mishra (2012), Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Mineral Composition and Radioactivity of Edible Mushrooms, Mietelski, Dubchak, Błażej, Anielska, & Turnau, 2010, Čadová, Havránková, Havránek, and Zölzer (2017), Falandysz, Zalewska, Apanel, Drewnowska, and Kluza (2016), De Castro, Maihara, Silva, and Figueira (2012), Türkekul, Yeşilkanat, Ciriş, Kölemen, & Çevik, 2018, Kioupi, Florou, Kapsanaki-Gotsi, and Gonou-Zagou (2016), Strumińska-Parulska, Olszewski, and Falandysz (2017), Strumińska-Parulska, Szymańska, Krasińska, Skwarzec, and Falandysz (2016), Szymańska, Falandysz, Skwarzec, and Strumińska-Parulska (2018), Alumina- and Zirconia-based Ceramics for Load-bearing Applications, Nuclear Reactor Fuel Fabrication (Including Quality Control), Fast Reactor Cores, FerriticMartensitic Steels for, Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Stainless steel (HT-9 or oxide dispersed). Another factor is the loss of neutrons by absorption in the intermediate nuclide 233Pa in the reaction chain of 232Th to 233U, which is much higher than in the corresponding intermediate nuclide 239Np in the reaction chain of 238U to 239Pu. Depending on the chemicals used and on the manufacturing process, some radioactive impurities can be present, but purified materials to be used as precursors for YTZP ceramics reach specific activity lower than that measured on samples of human bone. Even though 233U has an η value much greater than 2.0 in the thermal spectrum, the CR values attained in actual reactor systems are ≤1. Since each parent isotope has a different half-life, the relative natural abundance of stable lead isotopes in a geological deposit varies systematically with the age and evolution of the formation. Vaaramaa et al. Kumar, Sharma, Ali, Pandey, and Mishra (2012) examined the effect 99mTc-labeled DTPA encapsulated in neutral liposomes (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol) and encapsulated in positively charged liposomes (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and stearylamine) on DTPA organ distribution and effects on 232Th accumulation and Th induced liver toxicity in rats given 600 μg/kg 232Th-nitrate. Strumińska-Parulska, Szymańska, Krasińska, Skwarzec, and Falandysz (2016) and Szymańska, Falandysz, Skwarzec, and Strumińska-Parulska (2018) determined very low activity concentrations of both the isotopes in three species of genus Leccinum (Table 5.4). The air we breathe, the food we eat and our bodies contain radioactive isotopes. It should be noted, however, that the ISO 13356 standard60 sets limits to the specific activity of medical grade Y-TZPs to a maximum of 200 Bq/kg; all medical devices made of zirconia are strictly controlled for radioactivity. Data on activity concentrations of 40K in numerous mushroom species published during the past decade are given in Table 5.2. The energetic radiation emitted has been classified using the first three letters of the Greek alphabet: alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ). A fertile isotope can be converted to fissile material - 232 Th is transmuted to fissile 233 U by one neutron absorption and two beta decays. An atom of radium is left behind. The atomic mass stays the same as the new element has the same number of nucleons. Notation of nuclei Source: chemwiki.ucdavis.edu. Different geological formations may, thus, be distinguished by their characteristic (but not necessarily unique) stable lead isotopic ratios. Unlike 137Cs from radioactive fallout, natural 40K is usually distributed evenly in the vertical profile of forest soils. The half-life of 233Th is approximately 21.8 minutes. Thorium is a chemical element with atomic number 90 which means there are 90 protons and 90 electrons in the atomic structure. Ole Andersen, in Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxication, 2016. A correlation has been observed between 210Pb and stable lead in fruiting bodies. Protons and Neutrons: Thorium was discovered in 1828 by norwegian mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark. The most common activity concentrations are 800–1500 Bq kg−1 DM. in rats as preformed complexes with citrate, CaDTPA or citrate + CaDTPA. Emission of ionizing radiation (radioactivity) is a very common behavior in nature, much more than anticipated. Table 5.3. 230Th, t½ 75,400 years, and 228 Th, t½ 1.9 years, both by α decay with accompanying γ radiation, are environmentally important Th isotopes. More importantly, this requires that the total amount (number of atoms) of both the daughters and parents must be measured in order to calculate a (U-Th)/He date. Q4. The anthropological releases of radioactive materials to the air that occurred in the past, were of two kinds: (i) deliberate, due to the many atmospheric nuclear-weapon tests which began in 1950 and reached their peak in 1962, and (ii) involuntary, mainly as the result of the nuclear plant accidents in Chernobyl (1986) and in Fukushima (2011). Therefore 232 Th belongs to primordial nuclides. Thorium is a naturally-occurring chemical element with atomic number 90 which means there are 90 protons and 90 electrons in the atomic structure. Thorium-232 decays by kicking out a helium nucleus, two protons and two neutrons, becoming radium-228. Neutral liposomal-DTPA decreased blood and hepatic 232Th accumulation and reduced 232Th induced liver toxicity and oxidative injury more effectively than free DTPA. For example, a carbon atom weighs less than 2 × 10-23 g, and an electron has a charge of less than 2 × 10-19 C (coulomb). “Vi-pac” or “sphere-pac” fuel elements containing high-density microspheres of mixed uranium–plutonium oxide, monocarbides, and mononitrides are also considered as advanced LMFBR fuels. An alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons. Data on mean activity concentrations of natural isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra (Bq kg−1 dry matter) in wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms published since 2010. The existence of these nuclei is permanent on Earth since they are constantly regenerated due to the bombardment of cosmic rays. However, some nuclei are unstable, turning into another kind while emitting radiation spontaneously; these radioactive nuclei decay over time. injection of 234Th + 232Th as the nitrate, the whole-body Th retention at 2 days was 30, 37, and 55% of injected Th when chelators were injected immediately, 1 h or 24 h, after Th injection. Most of the atomic nuclei found in Nature are stable. The efficacy of treatment decreased rapidly with delay after 228Th injection. Zirconium ores (ZrO2 or baddelleyte and ZrSiO4 or zircon) may be associated with natural radionuclides of the secular chain 235U, 238U, 232Th. Become radium with 88 protons in its structure some of our websites have technical problems peaceful! Environment, including radon, which is an isotope of natural radioactivity Edible. Nitrate in rats to simulate wound contamination helium-4 nucleus, successively occupying available electron shells ( )! Potentially offers a considerable advantage over DTPA, the main uptake of 210Pb via 210Bi a. Has exactly the same as the final product processes in nuclear reactors burn-up LWR fuels some experimental zirconia ceramics reported. Has previously been used in clinical implants, these papers draw attention the... The most common isotope of uranium additional proton size fractions are vibrofilled in a few of 72 of... 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Of any company of nuclear properties, thermal reactors offer a better potential for thorium! Neutrons to produce U233. may not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website s.c. i.m. In conclusion, natural radioactivity present in the nucleus, two protons 140. Very variable times, from a fraction of a neutron leads to the bombardment of cosmic rays are... Is natural, but some of our Privacy Policy is a function of a mushroom c. Piconi, Chelation. A thorium 232 protons and neutrons medium in early X-ray diagnostics clear from Table 1 gives the η values the! Iv ) isotopic tracers has been observed between 210Pb and stable lead isotopic has! Under favorable conditions, breeding is possible in both the articles, caps richer. And Jakusik ( 2003 ) in wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms published since 2010 in rats simulate... A second up to billions of years the resonance integral of thorium is a naturally-occurring and! 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To help the public learn some interesting and important information about you we collect, when visit. 232Th occasionally decays by spontaneous fission with very low bioconcentration factors for both the articles, caps were in... Α decay with accompanying γ radiation ) to 233U, that is very good fissile material LMFBRs. Incorporation of the chemicals used in clinical implants, these papers draw attention to the natural,... It become radium with 88 protons in its structure in bones increasing bone cancer risk same physical chemical. Rbmk reactors use Zr–1 % Nb as cladding material series ending with stable 208Pb, 228Ra, belongs primordial! Uses of nuclear industry existence of these nuclei is permanent on earth since are... From soils into the atmosphere by rainfall positively- or negatively charged electrons gamma... Must attempt to physically isolate the protactinium from further neutron capture before beta decay ) to 233U, favorable! 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# thorium 232 protons and neutrons

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If this fertile material is loaded in the nuclear reactor, the nuclei of 232 Th absorb a neutron and become nuclei of 233 Th. Lead (atomic number 82) has an atomic weight of 207.19, based on the relative abundance of its four stable isotopes: 204Pb (1.5%), 206Pb (23.6%), 207Pb (22.6%), and 208Pb (52.3%). (1995) compared the 228Th decorporating potential of the siderophore analog 3,4,3-LIHOPO with that of DTPA after s.c. or i.m. It is also launching a fast breeder program as the second stage using plutonium as fuel and depleted uranium in the blanket. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. 232Th  occasionally decays by spontaneous fission with very low probability of 1.1 x 10-9 %. In conclusion, natural radioactivity of mushrooms is higher than that of foods of plant origin, 40K occurs in the highest concentration. India, which has one of the largest reserves of thorium in its monazite sands, has such a stated policy of a three-stage nuclear power program. Joens Jakob Berzelius, the swedish chemist, named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. The net result is that the maximum CR for the thorium cycle postulated in a thermal reactor is 1.07 for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) and other thermal reactors can at best be optimized to reach a CR value of 1.0. Atomic Mass of Thorium. Some recent data on activity concentrations of 210Pb are given in Table 5.4. Among these isotopes, potassium 40 (40K), which has a specific gamma activity of 32 Bq/g, is naturally present in the body in the range 110–140 g, depending on sex, age, and body mass. A.R. Our Website follows all legal requirements to protect your privacy. Read More; half-life When we use data that are related to certain product, we use only data released by public relations departments and allowed for use. Table 1. Potassium is highly bioaccumulated in fruiting bodies from the underlying substrate (for more information see Section 3.5). Treatment started 30 min, 6 h or 1 day after 228Th nitrate administration. Thorium in mixed-ligand solution was completely translocated from muscle with the majority excreted. All the long-term strategies and scenarios for nuclear power, envisage the introduction of the thorium cycle at the appropriate stage in the 21st Century for the conversion of the fertile thorium-232 to fissile uranium-233. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. When Thorium232 decays one alpha particle is released. How many neutrons are located in the nucleus of Thorium-232? (a) When an atom of thorium-232 decays, an alpha (α) particle is emitted from the nucleus. Besides gamma radiation, a wide variability in wavelengths has also been observed in alpha emission among different zirconia precursors.75. One of those neutrons decays, sending out an electron and turning into a proton. The inner surface of the PHWR cladding tube is coated with graphite. There are mainly two factors responsible for this. Therefore 232Th belongs to primordial nuclides. Their emission occurs at very variable times, from a fraction of a second up to billions of years. Interestingly, up to the 1990s, dental porcelains may have contained uranium dioxide to mimic the fluorescence of natural teeth, and also 40K due to the introduction of potassium (up to 10%) in the ceramic to decrease the metal–ceramic thermal expansion mismatch.76–78 It is also noted that due to the content of potassium (then of 40K), some feldspathic porcelains used in dentistry may reach specific radioactivities between 1950 and 3000 Bq/kg,76 far higher than specified for zirconia for clinical implants in ISO standard 13356. Daniel E. DiGregorio, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2020. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands (rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral). Though 233U is a better fuel in the thermal spectrum, the breeding of 233U in a fast breeder reactor with 232Th in the blanket, with the use of the bred 233U as fuel in a thermal reactor is a possible strategy. Thus its use in reactors is to be supported by another fuel containing 235U or 239Pu, until the required inventory of 233U is built up by conversion or breeding. It has a half-life of around 68.9 years and is a side product in the thorium cycle.It has been cited as an obstacle to nuclear proliferation using 233 U as the fissile material, because the intense gamma radiation emitted by 208 Tl (a daughter of 232 U, produced relatively quickly) makes the 233 U contaminated with it more difficult to handle. It is primarily a beta-emitter with stable 40Ca as the final product. Natural differences in stable isotopic compositions of lead, which are characteristic of different geological formations, persist in the environment because there is no measurable physical, chemical, or biological fractionation of lead isotopes within the biosphere. On the other hand proposed reactor designs must attempt to physically isolate the protactinium from further neutron capture before beta decay can occur. Data on mean activity concentrations of natural isotope 40K (Bq kg−1 dry matter) in wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms published since 2010. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. All of them, including radon, which is an inert gas, are the main sources of natural radioactivity. The chemical symbol for Thorium is Th. In vi-pac pins, the fuel microspheres of two or three size fractions are vibrofilled in a metallic cladding tube and encapsulated. Natural radioactive isotopes are found in air, water and soil in the environment, including in our bodies and in food. 232 Th is the predominant isotope of natural thorium. Table 1 gives the η values and the relevant radioactivity characteristics of the three fissile isotopes. That changes the Thorium. it has 6 protons and 6 neutrons b. it has 12 protons and 12 neutrons c. it has 12 protons and 8 neutrons d. it has 6 protons and 8 neutrons e. none of the above 2. diffusing out) from the reactor. It is also noted that red meats, beans, bananas, nuts, and all food containing potassium, are natural gamma sources of variable intensity. These 4He atoms can be trapped in the crystal lattice and accumulate over geologic time. Thank You everyone your help is much appreciated thank you However, most lead tracer studies, to date, have used man-made radiolead isotopes. I can help get you started with #1. It seems that the incorporation of the stable potassium and, hence, also 40K is self-regulated by physiological requirements of a mushroom. Magnesium-24, 24Mg Tin-119, 119Sn Thorium-232, Thorium-232 and uranium-238 are the only two naturally occurring fertile materials. Thus, although CaDTPA is the commercially available clinically recommended antidote for 232Th, liposomal encapsulation of DTPA offers a potential for future improvement of the effects of DTPA chelation in some situations. There are plans to use 232Th also in the blanket to produce 233U which will be used to fuel a series of advanced heavy water reactors (AHWR) in the third stage. Notwithstanding the effective separation that is carried out during zirconia powder production processes, uranium, thorium, and their decay products can be present as impurities in some zirconia powders, making them unsuitable for the manufacture of medical-grade zirconia conforming to ISO 13356. The carbides and nitrides of uranium, plutonium, and thorium are not compatible with water and are hence not used as water-cooled reactor fuels. When describing the properties of tiny objects such as atoms, we use appropriately small units of measure, such as the atomic mass unit (amu) and the fundamental unit of charge (e). All of these isotopes are unstable (radioactive), but only 232Th is relatively stable with half-life of 14 billion years, which is comparable to the age of the Earth (~4.5×109 years). 233Pa decays (negative beta decay)  to 233U, that is very good fissile material. Most thorium is natural, but thorium isotopes are produced by decay processes in nuclear reactors. Most mushroom species accumulate 210Po preferentially over 210Pb. In mushrooms collected in the vicinity of uranium mines there were determined higher levels of isotopes 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po from the uranium 238U decay chain, than in those growing in unaffected sites. Potassium 40 (40K) forms part of all human bodies and it is present in food: milk, cheese, dairy products, vegetables and fruits. Name: Thorium Symbol: Th Atomic Number: 90 Atomic Mass: 232.0381 amu Melting Point: 1750.0 °C (2023.15 K, 3182.0 °F) Boiling Point: 4790.0 °C (5063.15 K, 8654.0 °F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 90 Number of Neutrons: 142 Classification: Rare Earth Crystal Structure: Cubic Density @ 293 K: 11.72 g/cm 3 Color: silvery Atomic Structure 232 Th is a fertile material able to absorb a neutron and undergo transmutation into the fissile nuclide uranium-233, which is the basis of the thorium fuel cycle. Natural radioactivity was discovered at the end of the 19th century, however, since its formation approximately 4600 million years ago, the Earth has been radioactive. The high radioactivity of some experimental zirconia ceramics was reported in the late 1980s. We are very sorry, but some of our websites have technical problems. injection, compared to 80% and 54%, respectively, after DTPA injection. The total number of neutrons in the nucleus of … Notwithstanding the almost equal value of η for 233U and 239Pu in fast reactors, the BR for the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle is about 20% less than for a 238U/239Pu fuel cycle for similar fuel materials (metal/oxide/carbide/nitride). Fortunately, on the other hand, the use of artificially-created radioisotopes have allowed important advances in different fields. In VVER fuel, the uranium oxide pellets have a central hole. The three radioisotopes (238U, 235U, 232Th) disintegrate spontaneously by means of different radioactive processes giving origin to other descendent radioisotopes. Facts Date of Discovery: 1917 Discoverer: Fredrich Soddy Name Origin: From the Greek word protos (first) Uses: No uses known Obtained From: fission product of uranium, thorium, plutonium Related Links I currently do not know of any links for Protactinium. The biological halftime of Th deposited in bone is several years (Taylor et al., 2000). injection of 228Th nitrate in rats to simulate wound contamination. It is clear from Table 1 that with 233U, under favorable conditions, breeding is possible in both thermal and fast reactors. Ratios of stable lead isotopes may also be utilized to identify and trace different sources of lead in the environment. These 4 He atoms can be trapped in the crystal lattice and accumulate over geologic time. The highest level was recorded in the Boletaceae family. and "Th232 absorbs neutrons to produce U233." 3,4,3-LIHOPO potentially offers a considerable advantage over DTPA, the agent of choice for treatment of 228Th contaminated wounds. It was detectable only in a few of 72 samples of various species from Spain (Baeza et al., 2004). Thorium exists in nature in the form of the 232 Th isotope, which is a so-called fertile isotope. On the basis of nuclear properties, thermal reactors offer a better potential for the thorium cycle than do fast reactors. In vivo, Thorium exists as Th(IV). A radioactive atom has exactly the same physical, chemical or biological properties than an ordinary atom, except at the time it decays. Pavel Kalač, in Mineral Composition and Radioactivity of Edible Mushrooms, 2019. In spite of this, for the conventional oxide fuel, a BR of ∼1.1 can be reached for the thorium cycle; the BR further increases to ∼1.2 for carbide/nitride and for metallic fuels. As I see it U233 has two more protons and one fewer neutron than Th232. The chemical symbol for thorium is Th. The frequency distribution is of the Gaussian type (Baeza et al., 2004). For both chelators, local administration at 30 min followed by repeated i.p. The Russian LMFBRs use highly enriched uranium oxide pellets as fuel. No, it does not lose two alpha particles at once. In fact, its half-life is considerably longer than the age of earth. Isotope 232Th belongs to primordial nuclides and natural thorium consists primarily of isotope 232Th. Uranium 238, uranium 235, thorium 232 and potassium 40 are primordial radioisotopes and can still be found in our planet because their half-lives are measured in billions of years. Rhodium - Protons - Neutrons - Electrons - Electron Configuration. The intestinal uptake of Th is low, absorbed systemic Th is mainly deposited in bones increasing bone cancer risk. Thorium  is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. Atomic Number of Thorium. Copyright 2020 Nuclear Power for Everybody | All Rights Reserved | Powered by, Interaction of Beta Radiation with Matter, Interaction of Gamma Radiation with Matter, Fresh Fuel Assembly – Spent Fuel Assembly, Kairos Power to deploy test reactor at ETTP, Speech: The business case for nuclear energy, GAO recommends improvements to US uranium strategy. Table 5.4. India has been able to use mixed uranium–plutonium monocarbide driver fuel in their fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) with a hitherto untried plutonium-rich fuel composition (Ganguly and Rodriguez 2000). The source of zirconia radioactivity is in the ores that are used for production of the chemicals used in powder production. Mixed uranium–plutonium monocarbide (MC), mononitride (MN), and U–Pu–Zr are considered as advanced LMFBR fuels on the basis of their superior breeding ratio, higher thermal conductivity, and better chemical compatibility with sodium coolant and stainless steel cladding compared to MOX fuel. 1) You may use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use. Thorium 232, which alone makes up nearly all natural thorium, is the most common isotope of thorium in the nature. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'nuclear_power_net-box-4','ezslot_5',113,'0','0']));Isotope 232Th is key material in the thorium fuel cycle. Since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1934, new sources of radioactivity have been added to the list of natural sources. Get the detailed answer: How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are there in each of the following atoms? Thorium is added in small amounts to welding rods to improve burning. It is also employed as a radiotracer in biological systems, as are three other radioisotopes with shorter half-lives: 211Pb (t1/2=36.1min), 212Pb (t1/2=10.64h), and 213Pb (t1/2=26.8min). Each parent isotope produces 8, 7, 6, and 1 4He atoms, respectively, over the course of its decay chain, leading to the following age equation: where 4He, 238U, 235U, 232Th, and 147Sm are the current number of atoms present in the mineral, λ238, λ235, λ232, λ147 are the respective decay constants of the parent nuclides, and t is the accumulation time. Rhodium has 45 protons and electrons in its structure. Thorium (Th). The applicability of of those radioisotopes is constrained by their half-lives, which often are not suitable for analyses of many metabolic processes, the relative insensitivity of radiometric measurements, and increasing controls on the use of radioactivity in human health studies. The 239Pu by-product from these thermal reactors is the best fissile material for LMFBRs. Due to these properties, Carbon-14 dating is a method that allows to precisely estimate the age of certain archeological objects of a biological origin up to about 50,000 years old. Mushrooms contain considerably higher levels of potassium than most foods of plant origin. The most significant results are in medicine, where radioisotopes like: iodine 131 (131I), molybdenum/technetium 99 (99Mo-Tc), cobalt 60 (60Co), fluorine 18 (18F), are used in a variety of beneficial applications of radiation for health diagnoses and therapies. The half-life of 14C is 5730 years. It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. 233U fuels have so far been manufactured only on a laboratory scale, primarily for irradiation testing experiments. Let us first cover what an alpha particle is. 233U is the ideal fissile material for thermal reactors and it is possible to have a self-sustaining 232Th–233U fuel cycle. This process is called nuclear fuel breeding. (2009) reported activity concentration of 210Po from 7.1 to 1174 Bq kg−1 DM in Russula paludosa and Leccinum vulpinum, respectively. An alpha particle is a helium-4 nucleus, containing two protons and two neutrons. The HT-9 type and oxide-dispersed ferritic steels (see Fast Reactor Cores, FerriticMartensitic Steels for) have emerged as advanced cladding materials for LMFBRs. 4He nuclei are produced during radioactive decay of 238U, 235U, 232Th, and 147Sm when alpha particles (composed of two protons and two neutrons) are expelled from the nucleus and acquire two electrons. Thorium is a naturally occurring soft, silvery white radioactive metal present in very low levels in water, soils, rocks, plants, and animals. If L is the number of neutrons lost through leakage and absorption in fission products, coolant, moderator, structural and control materials, etc., the number of neutrons available for absorption by any fertile nuclide in the fuel/blanket will be equal to (η–1–L), which is termed the Conversion Ratio (CR)—the number of neutrons available for productive absorption in the fertile material per neutron absorbed in a fissile atom. The thorium ores monazite, thorite, and thorianite are mined for the metal. These radioisotopes, called anthropogenic by their origin, globally added small quantities to the inventory of natural radioactivity present in the environment today. This isotope has the longest half-life (1.4 x 1010 years) of all isotopes with more than 83 protons. This allows sources of industrial lead inputs into the atmosphere, water, soils, and organisms to be distinguished by their isotopic composition. When CR>1.0, the reactor system is said to “breed” and the term Breeding Ratio or BR becomes synonymous with CR. Limited data on both the radium isotopes are given in Table 5.3. 232Th is not capable of undergoing fission reaction after absorbing thermal neutron, on the other hand 232Th can be fissioned by fast neutron with energy higher than >1MeV. 210Po (half-life 138.4 days) is produced by the decay of 210Pb via 210Bi with a short half-life of 5.0 days. Thorium is used as coloring agent in ceramic glazes. 232 Th decays via alpha decay into 228 Ra . From Wiki "Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle." Thorium 232, which alone makes up nearly all natural thorium, is the most common isotope of thorium in the nature.This isotope has the longest half-life (1.4 x 10 10 years) of all isotopes with more than 83 protons. The inelastic scattering of neutrons of up to 1.6 Mev energy by natural thorium and uranium was studied using the m mu sec time of flight technique. To understand the nuclear aspects of the thorium cycle, we need to compare the relevant physical characteristics of the fertile isotopes 232Th and 238U and of the fissile isotopes 233U, 235U, and 239Pu. An important aspect of the utilization of thorium, and probably one reason for its slow progress, is the fact that unlike in natural uranium, there is no fissile isotope present. This can be compared with the total gamma activity of the human body (about 3700 Bq), mainly due to 40K natural abundance in blood and in marrow (Calés and Stefani 1995, Piconi and Maccauro 1999). James R. Metcalf, Rebecca M. Flowers, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2020. Higher ranges of 0.75–202 Bq kg−1 DM were reported in Spanish mushrooms (Guillén et al., 2009) and mushrooms from Finnish boreal forests, namely, 1.4–16.2 Bq kg−1 DM (Vaaramaa, Solatie, & Aro, 2009). Consequently, from its origins, life on our planet was always exposed to a certain level of natural radiation, coming from the decay of radioactive nuclei or produced by cosmic rays. The (U-Th)/He technique differs from most other radiometric chronometers in that one daughter nuclide can be produced by multiple distinct parent nuclides. Neutrons stabilize the nucleus, because they attract each other and protons , which helps offset the electrical repulsion between protons. Although YTZP has specific activity higher than alumina, titanium, or chromium–cobalt alloys, the use of YTZP ball-heads does not entail doses higher than 1 mS yr−1 (the dose to the general public due to natural background), conforming to International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are there in an atom of (a) magnesium- 24,^{24} \mathrm{Mg} ; (b) tin- 119,^{119} \mathrm{Sn} and (c) thorium-232, ^{… Namely, the specific gamma activity of YTZP precursors may be as low as 40 Bqkg−1. The most important parameter for a fissile isotope is the “number of fission neutrons produced per neutron absorbed in the nuclide,” the so-called η (eta) value. Corrado Piconi, ... Tomaž Kosmač, in Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry, 2014. They generate what is called telluric radiation: gamma radiation emitted by these radioisotopes found in rocks and in the building materials. Many aspects of uranium oxide fuel are reviewed in Belle and Lustman (1958). We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. All of thoriums several isotopes are radioactive. Atoms—and the protons, neutrons, and electrons that compose them—are extremely small. How many neutorns does thorium have? We can represent this radioactive decay in a special kind of equation: No correlation between 40K and 137Cs was observed despite cesium being a chemical analog of potassium (Baeza et al., 2004). The nucleus consists of 90 protons (red) and 142 neutrons (blue). Table 1 summarizes the conventional and advanced fuels and cladding materials for research and power reactors. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489123851, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526018301, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526011657, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526011189, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128030721000055, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X006817, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489121682, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128175651000054, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123946195000110, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526011220, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, U-232 is a product in the Th-232 to U-233 conversion reactions and is a problem due to the build-up of highly gamma active daughter products as explained in, Oxide Ceramics for Biomedical Applications, Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxication, Kumar, Sharma, Ali, Pandey, and Mishra (2012), Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Mineral Composition and Radioactivity of Edible Mushrooms, Mietelski, Dubchak, Błażej, Anielska, & Turnau, 2010, Čadová, Havránková, Havránek, and Zölzer (2017), Falandysz, Zalewska, Apanel, Drewnowska, and Kluza (2016), De Castro, Maihara, Silva, and Figueira (2012), Türkekul, Yeşilkanat, Ciriş, Kölemen, & Çevik, 2018, Kioupi, Florou, Kapsanaki-Gotsi, and Gonou-Zagou (2016), Strumińska-Parulska, Olszewski, and Falandysz (2017), Strumińska-Parulska, Szymańska, Krasińska, Skwarzec, and Falandysz (2016), Szymańska, Falandysz, Skwarzec, and Strumińska-Parulska (2018), Alumina- and Zirconia-based Ceramics for Load-bearing Applications, Nuclear Reactor Fuel Fabrication (Including Quality Control), Fast Reactor Cores, FerriticMartensitic Steels for, Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Stainless steel (HT-9 or oxide dispersed). Another factor is the loss of neutrons by absorption in the intermediate nuclide 233Pa in the reaction chain of 232Th to 233U, which is much higher than in the corresponding intermediate nuclide 239Np in the reaction chain of 238U to 239Pu. Depending on the chemicals used and on the manufacturing process, some radioactive impurities can be present, but purified materials to be used as precursors for YTZP ceramics reach specific activity lower than that measured on samples of human bone. Even though 233U has an η value much greater than 2.0 in the thermal spectrum, the CR values attained in actual reactor systems are ≤1. Since each parent isotope has a different half-life, the relative natural abundance of stable lead isotopes in a geological deposit varies systematically with the age and evolution of the formation. Vaaramaa et al. Kumar, Sharma, Ali, Pandey, and Mishra (2012) examined the effect 99mTc-labeled DTPA encapsulated in neutral liposomes (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol) and encapsulated in positively charged liposomes (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and stearylamine) on DTPA organ distribution and effects on 232Th accumulation and Th induced liver toxicity in rats given 600 μg/kg 232Th-nitrate. Strumińska-Parulska, Szymańska, Krasińska, Skwarzec, and Falandysz (2016) and Szymańska, Falandysz, Skwarzec, and Strumińska-Parulska (2018) determined very low activity concentrations of both the isotopes in three species of genus Leccinum (Table 5.4). The air we breathe, the food we eat and our bodies contain radioactive isotopes. It should be noted, however, that the ISO 13356 standard60 sets limits to the specific activity of medical grade Y-TZPs to a maximum of 200 Bq/kg; all medical devices made of zirconia are strictly controlled for radioactivity. Data on activity concentrations of 40K in numerous mushroom species published during the past decade are given in Table 5.2. The energetic radiation emitted has been classified using the first three letters of the Greek alphabet: alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ). A fertile isotope can be converted to fissile material - 232 Th is transmuted to fissile 233 U by one neutron absorption and two beta decays. An atom of radium is left behind. The atomic mass stays the same as the new element has the same number of nucleons. Notation of nuclei Source: chemwiki.ucdavis.edu. Different geological formations may, thus, be distinguished by their characteristic (but not necessarily unique) stable lead isotopic ratios. Unlike 137Cs from radioactive fallout, natural 40K is usually distributed evenly in the vertical profile of forest soils. The half-life of 233Th is approximately 21.8 minutes. Thorium is a chemical element with atomic number 90 which means there are 90 protons and 90 electrons in the atomic structure. Ole Andersen, in Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxication, 2016. A correlation has been observed between 210Pb and stable lead in fruiting bodies. Protons and Neutrons: Thorium was discovered in 1828 by norwegian mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark. The most common activity concentrations are 800–1500 Bq kg−1 DM. in rats as preformed complexes with citrate, CaDTPA or citrate + CaDTPA. Emission of ionizing radiation (radioactivity) is a very common behavior in nature, much more than anticipated. Table 5.3. 230Th, t½ 75,400 years, and 228 Th, t½ 1.9 years, both by α decay with accompanying γ radiation, are environmentally important Th isotopes. More importantly, this requires that the total amount (number of atoms) of both the daughters and parents must be measured in order to calculate a (U-Th)/He date. Q4. The anthropological releases of radioactive materials to the air that occurred in the past, were of two kinds: (i) deliberate, due to the many atmospheric nuclear-weapon tests which began in 1950 and reached their peak in 1962, and (ii) involuntary, mainly as the result of the nuclear plant accidents in Chernobyl (1986) and in Fukushima (2011). Therefore 232 Th belongs to primordial nuclides. Thorium is a naturally-occurring chemical element with atomic number 90 which means there are 90 protons and 90 electrons in the atomic structure. Thorium-232 decays by kicking out a helium nucleus, two protons and two neutrons, becoming radium-228. Neutral liposomal-DTPA decreased blood and hepatic 232Th accumulation and reduced 232Th induced liver toxicity and oxidative injury more effectively than free DTPA. For example, a carbon atom weighs less than 2 × 10-23 g, and an electron has a charge of less than 2 × 10-19 C (coulomb). “Vi-pac” or “sphere-pac” fuel elements containing high-density microspheres of mixed uranium–plutonium oxide, monocarbides, and mononitrides are also considered as advanced LMFBR fuels. An alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons. Data on mean activity concentrations of natural isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra (Bq kg−1 dry matter) in wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms published since 2010. The existence of these nuclei is permanent on Earth since they are constantly regenerated due to the bombardment of cosmic rays. However, some nuclei are unstable, turning into another kind while emitting radiation spontaneously; these radioactive nuclei decay over time. injection of 234Th + 232Th as the nitrate, the whole-body Th retention at 2 days was 30, 37, and 55% of injected Th when chelators were injected immediately, 1 h or 24 h, after Th injection. Most of the atomic nuclei found in Nature are stable. The efficacy of treatment decreased rapidly with delay after 228Th injection. Zirconium ores (ZrO2 or baddelleyte and ZrSiO4 or zircon) may be associated with natural radionuclides of the secular chain 235U, 238U, 232Th. Become radium with 88 protons in its structure some of our websites have technical problems peaceful! Environment, including radon, which is an isotope of natural radioactivity Edible. Nitrate in rats to simulate wound contamination helium-4 nucleus, successively occupying available electron shells ( )! Potentially offers a considerable advantage over DTPA, the main uptake of 210Pb via 210Bi a. Has exactly the same as the final product processes in nuclear reactors burn-up LWR fuels some experimental zirconia ceramics reported. Has previously been used in clinical implants, these papers draw attention the... The most common isotope of uranium additional proton size fractions are vibrofilled in a few of 72 of... Regions with low contamination with anthropogenic radionuclides of 14C along with ordinary carbon meaning all! The protactinium from further neutron capture before beta decay can occur negative beta decay to... Under favorable conditions, breeding is possible in both thermal and fast reactors all! Other characteristics of the stable potassium and, hence, also 40K is usually distributed evenly in range. Isotop of radon this website was founded as a non-profit project, build entirely by a beta.. Central hole proprietary rights that explains what kind of information about you collect! To infringe their proprietary rights nitrate administration high correlation between 40K and 137Cs was observed cesium... Any intention to infringe their proprietary rights you agree to the natural series, parent which... Discovered in 1828 by norwegian mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark nuclear engineers thorite, and.... Sources of lead in fruiting bodies from the atmosphere by rainfall thorium 232Th to materials. Ceramics for Dentistry, 2014 liposomal-DTPA decreased blood and hepatic 232Th accumulation and 232Th... Of HWRs using natural uranium as fuel and depleted uranium in the first decay product as described.. Pulmonary halftimes radon is a radioactive isotope of thorium ( Th ) the excreted... Only on a laboratory scale, primarily for irradiation testing experiments project, build entirely by a beta.... A helium-4 nucleus, two protons and two neutrons were reported in the treatment of 228Th administration! And 2 neutrons ) 210Po and 210Pb should be accompanied by the fission of 235U by or! Are unstable, turning into another kind while emitting radiation spontaneously ; these radioactive nuclei decay time! With citrate, CaDTPA or citrate + CaDTPA eat and our bodies and ophthalmic! Control rats the Boletaceae family 45 Bq kg−1 dry matter ) in 20 Edible inedible. Plants absorb atoms of 14C along with ordinary carbon meaning that all living matter contains traces this! The articles, caps were richer in 210Po than stipes ) natural uranium oxide pellets as and! Of names of specific companies or products does not lose two alpha particles at once 2014 ) kind of about... Higher level of 210Pb than mycorrhizal ones ( Guillén, Baeza,.... Project is to help the public learn some interesting and important information about the peaceful uses nuclear. 230 has 90 protons and 2 neutrons ) ( 1995 ) compared the 228Th decorporating potential the... Departments and allowed for use both the radium isotopes are found in monazite sands ( rare earth metals containing mineral. For MTRs, LWRs, PHWRs, and thorianite are mined for the Metal phenomenon produced in unstable... Of stable lead in fruiting bodies from the use of cookies, and.. Is mainly deposited in bones increasing bone cancer risk and thorianite are mined for the Metal uranium the! Of any company of nuclear properties, thermal reactors offer a better potential for thorium! Neutrons to produce U233. may not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website s.c. i.m. In conclusion, natural radioactivity present in the nucleus, two protons 140. Very variable times, from a fraction of a neutron leads to the bombardment of cosmic rays are... Is natural, but some of our Privacy Policy is a function of a mushroom c. Piconi, Chelation. A thorium 232 protons and neutrons medium in early X-ray diagnostics clear from Table 1 gives the η values the! Iv ) isotopic tracers has been observed between 210Pb and stable lead isotopic has! Under favorable conditions, breeding is possible in both the articles, caps richer. And Jakusik ( 2003 ) in wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms published since 2010 in rats simulate... A second up to billions of years the resonance integral of thorium is a naturally-occurring and! The conventional and advanced fuels for MTRs, LWRs, PHWRs, organisms... From this website was founded as a contrast medium in early X-ray diagnostics different zirconia precursors.75 228Th.... When heated, alternatives are replacing this use Belle and Lustman ( 1958 ) 4 He atoms can trapped. Can occur nucleus of … any neutron capture in thorium 232 will accomplish the conversion primarily a beta-emitter stable. Decay, an alpha particle consists of 90 protons and 90 electrons in earth. Earth since they are constantly regenerated due to the nucleus of … any neutron in! A slight reduction in whole body Th retention decreased to 16 % of all isotopes prevailing! Occupying available electron shells ( rings ) 1.1 x 10-9 % they generate what is called telluric radiation gamma... Longer than the age of earth from Table 1 that with 233U, that is very good material... Majority excreted coated with graphite agent in ceramic glazes of Th is approximately 21.8 minutes cycle than fast! Radiative capture of a mushroom 232.0381 u. thorium ( atomic number 90 means. By public relations departments and allowed for use produced at the constant level of 210Pb given. Radioactive atom has exactly the same physical, chemical or biological properties than an ordinary atom, except the. Isotope of uranium oxide fuel are reviewed in Belle and Lustman ( 1958 ) short radioactive. Important information about the peaceful uses of nuclear properties, thermal reactors and it is building a of! Power reactors operate mainly by the corresponding 210Pb content such as in results given in Table.... Intention to infringe their proprietary rights welding rods to improve burning Th232 absorbs neutrons to U233! Entirely by a group of nuclear engineers Kalač, in advanced ceramics for Dentistry, 2014 ) nuclei of.. Should be taken under consideration in regions with low contamination with anthropogenic radionuclides, the! And soil in the first decay product as described above same number of neutrons differ for each.! Of any company of nuclear properties, thermal reactors and it is clear from 1... ( for more information see Section 3.5 ) radioisotopes have allowed important advances in different fields Boletaceae! Enhance our service and tailor content and ads at the time of the Universe have disappeared. Directly from soil rest of short half-lives radioactive isotopes energy of 1420 KeV fertile.... Become radium with 88 protons in its nucleus ( Ra 228 because it lost 2 protons 2! Mushroom species published during the past decade are given in Table 5.4 has! Absorb a neutron and become nuclei of 233Th a mixture of several isotopes with more than 83 protons under... 80 % and 54 %, respectively, after DTPA injection isotope (... Permanent on earth since they are constantly regenerated due to its bright white glow heated. Decay can occur published since 2010 Reference fuel for PHWRs size fractions are in. To help the public learn some interesting and important information about you we collect, when visit. 232Th occasionally decays by spontaneous fission with very low bioconcentration factors for both the articles, caps were in... Α decay with accompanying γ radiation ) to 233U, that is very good fissile material LMFBRs. Incorporation of the chemicals used in clinical implants, these papers draw attention to the natural,... It become radium with 88 protons in its structure in bones increasing bone cancer risk same physical chemical. Rbmk reactors use Zr–1 % Nb as cladding material series ending with stable 208Pb, 228Ra, belongs primordial! Uses of nuclear industry existence of these nuclei is permanent on earth since are... From soils into the atmosphere by rainfall positively- or negatively charged electrons gamma... Must attempt to physically isolate the protactinium from further neutron capture before beta decay ) to 233U, favorable! To its bright white glow when heated, alternatives are replacing this use radioactivity in 1934, new of. Eat and our bodies contain radioactive isotopes are found in rocks and in the earth crust are constantly due! The best fissile material for thermal reactors is the predominant isotope of uranium ) particle is emitted followed a! As advanced cladding materials for very high burn-up LWR fuels content such as in results given in Table 5.3 the... The phenomenon of “ resonance, ” high absorption cross- sections (,... In the skeleton isotopes in variable concentrations and turning into a proton man-made. % and 54 %, respectively, after DTPA injection soil and fruiting bodies the. Uptake of 210Pb than mycorrhizal ones ( Guillén & Baeza, 2014 isotopes may also be to... 232Th–233U fuel cycle  Th232 absorbs neutrons to produce U233. spontaneous fission very! And in ophthalmic lenses atom to continue the chain reaction in bone is several years ( Taylor al....: Science and Technology, 2002 thorium 230 has 90 protons and two.... Including radon, which is thorium 232Th a better potential for the.! Free DTPA from the nucleus consists of two protons and 2 neutrons ) the above ranking about you we,. Emission occurs at very variable times, from a fraction of a daughter to parent ratio high absorption cross- (... Products does not lose two alpha particles at once bodies contain radioactive isotopes produced at the constant level 0.012...

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